| STABILA BLOCKCHAIN | CHAIN STATUS: STABLE | MONETA EXCHANGE LAUNCH DATE: Mar 2022 |

What is blockchain?

It is a stable, common and a distributed directory which enables the resources recording and tracking without a trusted centralized authority. Blockchain enables interaction between the parties and resources sharing of in peer to peer network in which the majority and not one centralized authority are responsible for distributed decisions. It is a safe system against attackers if they want to manipulate device by jeopardizing the central controller. In a broad-spectrum, anything important can be monitored in blockchain network from where safety risks and all concerned security monitoring costs can be mitigated.

The monitoring of network and protection services like anonymity, confidentiality, provenance and authentication are among the promising blockchain applications. This technology provides safety assurances which address various conventional problems as well as offering a truly distributed, stable and consensus-based solution.

Introduction blockchain medium 

There exists a vast array of assets in the world which people freely choose as a store­ of ­value, a transactional medium, or an investment. We believe the blockchain is a better technology for transacting, storing, and accounting for these assets. Most estimates measure global wealth around 250 trillion dollars with much of that being held by banks or similar financial institutions. The migration of these assets onto the blockchain represents a proportionally large opportunity.

Blockchain was created as “an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party.” Blockchain created a new class of  currency, a decentralized digital currency or cryptocurrency.

Some of the primary advantages of cryptocurrencies are: low transaction costs, international borderless transferability and convertibility, trustless ownership and exchange, pseudo anonymity, real-time transparency, and immunity from legacy banking system problems. Common explanations for the current limited mainstream use of cryptocurrencies include: volatile price swings, inadequate mass-market understanding of the technology, and insufficient ease fuse for non­technical users.

One should note that all exchanges and wallets which allow you to hold value as a fiat currency already provide a similar service in that users can avoid the volatility (or other traits) of a particular cryptocurrency by selling them for fiat currency, gold, or another asset. Further, almost all types of existing financial institutions, payment providers, etc., which allow you to hold fiat value (or other assets) subsequently provide a similar service. In this white paper we focus on applications wherein the fiat value is stored and transmitted with software that is open source, cryptographically secure, and uses distributed ledger technology, i.e. a true cryptocurrency.

While the goal of any successful cryptocurrency is to completely eliminate the requirement of trust, each of the aforementioned implementations either rely on a trusted third party or have other technical, market based, or process based drawbacks and limitations.

How's Blockchain Functioning?

A blockchain is a distributed and stable transaction log database. If first client wants to transfer bitcoins to second client then then in a Bitcoin network it will create a transaction from first client. Miners must approve the transaction until the Bitcoin network is committed The transaction is transmitted to each network node to begin the mining operation. Mining nodes collect transactions in one block and validate the transactions, after that using a consensus protocol, the block and verification will transmit to gain network approval. If other nodes check the validity of transaction in block then this block will come into the blockchain.

There are three simple and essential features provided by Bitcoin's blockchain implementation:
  • The hash chained storage
  • The digital signature
  • The pledge to add new unit to the universal chain

Stabila blockchain Stabila blockchain

Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocols have been actively researched for the past five years. PoS finds direct applicability in open blockchain platforms and has been seen as a strong candidate to replace the largely inefficient Proof of Work mechanism that is currently plugged in most existing open block chains. Although a number of PoS variants have been proposed, these protocols suffer from a number of security shortcomings; for instance, most existing PoS variants suffer from the nothing at stake and the long range attacks which considerably degrade security in the blockchain.

We address these problems and we propose two PoS protocols that allow validators to generate at most one block at any given “height”—-thus alleviating the problem of nothing at stake and preventing attackers from compromising accounts to mount long range attacks. Our first protocol leverages a dedicated digital signature scheme to build a Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs).
Deposit-based PoS essentially requires each validator to make a deposit in the system; this deposit will be withdrawn by the system if the validator generates conflicting blocks, thus preventing nothing at stake attacks.

Checkpoints, on the other hand, correspond to previous blocks up to which the blockchain does not allow forks. This limits the impact of the long-range attack to some extent, as the earliest attack point has to be after the last checkpoint.

PoS constitutes one of the few workable candidates set to replace that largely inefficient PoW in the near future. PoS leverages virtual resources denoted by the stake of a validator to solve the computation problem. Stakes refer to the assets (or cryptocurrencies) owned by a node. The idea is that the more stake a validator has, the more likely he will find a solution to generate a block. Thus, PoS defines the predicate IsEligible as f(blkhder, keyV ) T · stakeV , where f(·) is a deterministic function on the block header and the validator’s account key. Recall that the account key and the amount of stake is publicly verifiable by all nodes in the network.

GenerateBlock returns empty if the validator’s hkeyV , stakeV i does not satisfy the statement of the IsEligible predicate; otherwise it returns a proof prf = hP rfe, Sigbi, where P rfe is the eligibility proof and Sigb is the block signature of the validator. This also implies that validators do not need to search for the PoS solution exhaustively (as in PoW) since the solution only depends on the validator’s account information. Meanwhile, ValidateBlock returns true if the proof prf is valid and the validator’s account hkeyV , stakeV i satisfies the IsEligible statement.
Proposed is the use of “stake-time” based on coin age, which also takes into account the activity of the nodes in the network. The stake time starts to degrade at a certain point of time if the nodes do not participate in block generation with their stake.

A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending.

We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-stake, forming a record that cannot be changed without re doing the proof. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the correct CPU. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-stake chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.

We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.

The problem of course is the payee can't verify that one of the owners did not double-spend the coin. A common solution is to introduce a trusted central authority, or mint, that checks every transaction for double spending. After each transaction, the coin must be returned to the mint to issue a new coin, and only coins issued directly from the mint are trusted not to be double-spent.

The problem with this solution is that the fate of the entire money system depends on the company running the mint, with every transaction having to go through them, just like a bank.

We need a way for the payee to know that the previous owners did not sign any earlier transactions. For our purposes, the earliest transaction is the one that counts, so we don't care about later attempts to double-spend. The only way to confirm the absence of a transaction is to be aware of all transactions. In the mint based model, the mint was aware of all transactions and decided which arrived first. To accomplish this without a trusted party, transactions must be publicly announced [1], and we need a system for participants to agree on a single history of the order in which they were received. The payee needs proof that at the time of each transaction, the majority of nodes agreed it was the first received.

The incentive is funded with transaction fees and is completely inflation free. The incentive may help encourage nodes to stay honest.

Public block chains are likely to substitute a majority of functions provided by common financial establishments. This is possible due to enhanced software that changes traditional financial system approaches.

Most of blockchain use the consensus algorithms that are publicly accessible and defined as non permissioned. In particular, this means that all users:

  • can participate in this type of blockchain without any restrictions
  • are able to download the source code and run a node on their personal devices and validate the process of transactions
  • can transact payments via the network and participate in the blockchain
  • can view transaction history while still remaining anonymous, due to transparency
These blockchain technologies provide a chance of fundamentally changing common business models. They also reduce costs by eliminating server maintenance fees and providing almost free possibilities of decentralized applications deployment.

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